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藤原定家・Fujiwara no Sada’i’e

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Teika(3).jpg藤原定家・Fujiwara no Sada’i’e
Teika(3)“-Licensed under Public domain via ウィキメディア・コモンズ.

武野紹鷗小堀遠州が学んだ名歌人藤原定家とはどんな人物だったのでしょうか。

Jo’u’o’u Takeno and Enshu’u Kobori studies works by Fujiwara no Sada’i’e.  Who was he?

藤原定家(ふじわら の さだいえ)(1162-1241)は、平安時代末期と鎌倉時代初期の京都の公家・歌人。「ていか」と音読みされることもあります。最終官位は70歳で正二位権中納言。京極殿または京極中納言と呼ばれました。

Fujiwara no Sada’i’e (藤原定家), also known as Fujiwara no Teika (on’yomi for 定家), was a Japanese aristocrat and poet of the late Heian and early Kamakura periods.  He achieved the highest court rank of “Sho’u Ni’i Gon Chu’unagon” (Senior Second Class Acting Middle Counselor) at age 70.  He was also called “Kyo’ugoku Dono” (Sir Kyo’ugoku – for his residence) or “Kyo’ugoku Chu’unagon.”

日本の代表的な和歌の宗匠として永く仰がれてきた歴史があります。「新古今和歌集」、「小倉百人一首」などを撰じた。定家自身の作で百人一首に収められているのは、「来ぬ人を まつほの浦の夕凪に 焼くや藻塩の 身もこがれつつ」。

Sada’i’e has been venerated as one of preeminent masters of waka – a Japanese style poetic form consisting of five lines with a total of 31 syllables.  He was responsible for compiling poetry collections, such as “Shin Kokinshu’u (“New Collection of Japanese Poetry, Ancient and Modern”) and “Ogura Hyakunin Isshu” (“Single Poems by One Hundred Poets”).  His own poem is included in “Hyakunin Isshu“:

こぬ人を
まつほの浦の
夕なぎに
焼くやもしほの
身もこがれつつ
Konu hito o
Matsuho no ura no
Yu’unagi ni
Yakuya mo shi’o no
Mi mo kogare tsutsu.
Like the seaweed
Burning on the windless evening
On Matsuo’s shore,
I am on fire
Waiting for the one who does not come.

歌論書「詠歌大概」の著者としても知られています。

He is also known for the poetry theory book he authored: “E’igata’iga’i” (“Essentials of Poetic Composition”).

定家の「小倉百人一首」は、理想的な和歌を全て集めて、あらゆる技法を盛り込んだ歌論書と考えられるようになりました。この歌集はその後お正月のカルタの基となりました。

Sada’i’e ‘s “Ogura Hyakunin Isshu” was thought to be a book of waka theory in which all types of ideal waka and all techniques were laid out.  This collection later became the foundation of the modern Japanese New Year game karuta.

【参考・References】

http://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/藤原定家

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fujiwara_no_Teika

Originally posted December 8, 2014

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