茶の湯 in サンフランシスコ ・ Japanese Tea Ceremony を San Franciscoで

表千家四方社中の茶の湯ブログ Japanese Tea Ceremony Blog for Shikata Shachu – Omotesenke

唐津焼・Karatsu Ware

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絵唐津Egaratsu

唐津焼(からつやき)は、現在の佐賀県東部・長崎県北部で焼かれ始めた陶器です。伊万里、唐津などの肥前の陶磁器は、豊臣秀吉による朝鮮半島出兵の際に朝鮮半島から来日した陶工たちが開窯したというのが通説になっていましたが、最近の調査では唐津焼の創始は朝鮮半島出兵より早い1580年代との説もあるそうです。

Karatsu ware is the type of pottery originated from today’s eastern Saga Prefecture and northern Nagasaki Prefecture.  It was a common understanding that ceramics such as Imari (porcelain) and Karatsu (pottery) had been started by potters who were brought to Japan from the Korean Peninsula during Hideyoshi Toyotomi’s campaign to the Korean Peninsula.  However, based on recent researches, there is a new theory that Karatsu ware started during the 1580s – earlier than the campaign to the Korean Peninsula.

当初は食器や甕(かめ)など日用雑器が中心でしたが、唐津焼の特徴である質朴さが侘びの茶人に好まれるようになりました。桃山時代には茶の湯の名品を多く数え、今でも「一楽二萩三唐津」と格付けされています。

Karatsu ware originally focused on everyday items, such as dinner plates and water jars.  But wabi tea men took liking to Karatsu ware’s characteristically simple and unpretentious beauty.  During the Momoyama Period, many me’ibutsu (famous or renowned utensils) were produced, and even today, Karatsu is treasured as one of the three types of pottery most beloved by tea practitioners: “First, Raku, second, Hagi, third, Karatsu.”

江戸時代に窯場が林立し山野の荒廃が深刻な問題となった際、佐賀藩が藩内の窯場を有田に集約したため唐津の多くの窯元が取り壊されました。しかし、唐津の茶器は全国でも評判が高かったため、茶陶を焼くための御用窯として存続しました。その焼き物は幕府への献上品が作られたため、献上唐津と呼ばれました。

During the Edo Period, many kilns sprung up, thus crowding mountainsides and threatening their environment.  The Government of the Saga Province took actions to consolidate  kilns in the Arita region, and consequently many Karatsu kilns were destroyed.  However, owing to its reputation as tea utensils, Karatsu ware continued as a “goyo’u gama” (a kiln operated directly by the lord of the province) for producing tea utensils.  At the kiln, gifts to the Shogunate Government were produced, and the pottery was referred to as “Kenjo’u Karatsu” (Karatsu for offering).

朝鮮唐津Egaratsu

明治維新によって藩の庇護を失ったこと、有田を中心とした磁器が台頭したこと等の理由で急速に衰退した唐津焼ですが、人間国宝の中里無庵氏が伝統的な古唐津の技法「叩き作り」を復活させ、再興しました。「叩き作り」は、粘土の紐を積み上げて成形した器形を補強するために内側に当て板を当て表面を叩き板で叩いて成形するという朝鮮伝来の技法です。叩き板にはでこぼこがあり、器表には叩き目が文様として残ります。

Various factors, such as losing the Provincial Government’s protection as a result of the Me’iji Restoration, and Arita and other porcelain ware becomng dominant, contributed to the decline of Karatsu ware.  A living national treasure, Mr. Mu’an Nagazato, brought back the ancient Karatsu technique of “tatakizukuri,” and resurrected the life of Karatsu ware.  “Tatakizukuri” originated in Korea.  A vessel is created by coiling up a string of clay.  To support the vessel, a board is inserted inside, and the exterior surface is pounded with another board to shape the vessel into a desired form.  The pounding board has protrusions, and the marks left on the vessel’s surface create a pattern.

斑唐津・Madaragaratsu

唐津焼の中には様々な種類がありますが、一般的に砂目の粗い土で、堅く鉄分を含み、素地の焼き上がりは暗い鼠色になります。鉄溶液を使って花鳥、草木などの絵を描き灰色釉など透明な釉薬を流し込み焼く絵唐津、長石に藁灰を混ぜて焼き火の状態や土の鉄分の色が変わり青や黒などの斑点が 出る斑(まだら)唐津、黒色を付ける鉄釉と白色を付ける藁灰釉を逆方向から交わらす朝鮮唐津などが得に著名です。

There are many varieties among Karatsu ware.  Generally speaking, the soil has rough texture.  It is hard and contains iron, and after being fired, it turns dark gray.  Particularly famous are:

  • Egaratsu: Pictures (e; 絵) of birds, flowers, plants, etc. are drawn with ferric solution on the surface, which is then coated with a clear-finishing glaze, such as gray glaze.
  • Madaragaratsu: Feldspars and straw ashes are used in the firing, which causes iron in the clay to turn black, blue and other colors, thus creating spots (madara; 斑).
  • Cho’usen Karatsu: Iron glaze, which turns black, and straw ash glaze, which turns white, are applied from the opposite directions, thus creating an overlapping draping pattern.

唐津焼は経済産業大臣指定伝統的工芸品に指定されています。

Karatsu ware is designated as one of “Minister of Economy, Trade and Industry Designated Traditional Crafts.”

【参考・References】

http://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/唐津焼

http://www.karatsu-kankou.jp/index.html

http://www.tougeizanmai.com/index.htm

 唐津平茶碗・Karatsu hirajawan (flat chawan)

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