茶の湯 in サンフランシスコ ・ Japanese Tea Ceremony を San Franciscoで

表千家四方社中の茶の湯ブログ Japanese Tea Ceremony Blog for Shikata Shachu – Omotesenke


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一汁三菜・One Soup, Three Dishes

飯碗、汁碗と向付
Rice Bowl, Soup Bowl and Muko’uzuke

懐石は茶事で出る料理ですが、通常汁物が一種、向付・煮物・焼物の三種からなる「一汁三菜」を基本とし、ご飯と香物が合わせて出されます。(お稽古では一部省略しましたが、強肴、吸物、八寸による酒がそれに続きます。)

Kaiseki is a meal served at chaji (tea event).  The basic combination is one soup and three dishes (muko’uzuke, something stewed, and something grilled) called “ichi-ju’u, san-sa’i” (one soup, three dishes).  Rice and ko’umono (pickles) accompany them.  (Other items, shi’izakana, suimono, sake with hassun were partially omitted from practice.)

汁物は味噌汁。向付は酒の肴となるようなもので、飯椀と汁椀の向こう置かれたことからこのような呼び方がされるそうです。煮物は懐石のメインコースです。焼物には魚を主として旬のものを用います。

Shirumono (soup) is miso soup.  Muko’uzuke is an appetizer to be consumed with sake.  It is called “muko’u” (on the other side) because the dish is placed “on the other side” of the rice and soup bowls.  Nimono (a stewed item) is the main course of kaisekiYakimono (a grilled item) often features fish in season.

煮物
Nimono

古くは、汁物、向付、香物、煮物で一汁三菜としたそうです。

In the old days, “one soup, three dishes” consisted of shirumono, muko’uzuke, ko’umono and nimono.


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山上宗二記・Yamano’u’e no So’uji Chronicle

「山上宗二記」は天正年間の堺衆の茶の湯の基本史料となっています。山上宗二が複数の弟子に書き与えたため、宗二自筆と認められる類 本が十冊ほど現存しています。表千家の不審庵本は自筆本の一つとして高く評価されています。

The “Yamano’u’e no So’uji Chronicle” serves as a book of records about tea practices of the people of Sakai in the late 16th century.  Because So’uji hand-copied and distributed it to his disciples, there are about 10 copies that are thought to be by his own hand.  In particular, the copy held by Omotesenke Fushin’an is highly valued.

「山上宗二記」は茶道具を「名物」と「数寄道具」に分けています。主に茶入、茶壺、掛軸といった茶道具とその所持者を評価の高い順序に従って列挙しており、当時の茶道具への感覚が感じ取られます。秘伝書でありな がら唐物を主体とした「名物」の紹介を中心とする点から、当時の数寄者がこうした道具の拝見を通じて養われる目利を必須技能としていたのでしょう。

The “Yamano’u’e no So’uji Chronicle” has sections on “me’ibutsu,” as well as “sukido’ugu.”  The book lists tea utensils and their owners, mainly cha’ire (tea containers), chatsubo (tea jars), kakejiku (scrolls), in the order of importance, thus providing an insight into what type of utensils were treasured at the time.  While positioning as a collection of secret teachings, the book prominently features “me’ibutsu” (utensils of great renown), mostly foreign imports from China.  It shows that avid practitioners of the time were expected to train their eye to cultivate a discerning taste through viewing of such great treasures.

「名物」に比べ、「数寄道具」は堺の数寄者達が好んだ「わび」を感じさせる道具です。前衛的気風をもった堺の数寄者達が既存の権威を否定することで茶の湯を刷新しようとしていたのでしょうか。つまり「わび茶」は「名物」を礼賛する価値観を否定することから生まれたということでしょうか。

In contrast to “me’ibutsu,” “sukido’ugu” were utensils that evoked a sense of “wabi” and were favored by practitioners of Sakai.  They demonstrated such an avant-garde tendency; were they rejecting the established authority, thereby trying to refresh chanoyu?  Put another way, was the wabi tea movement born out of rejection of the culture of “me’ibutsu” worship?

【参考・References】

http://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/山上宗二

http://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/山上宗二記


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一服・Ippuku

Paper

日本語を学んでいる外国の方にとって難しいことのひとつは物の数え方でしょう。犬一匹、鉛筆一本、皿一枚、畳一畳。

One of the things that students of the Japanese language may find difficult is how to count items: one dog is “ippiki,” one pencil is “ippon,” one plate is “ichimai” and one tatami is “ichijo.”

ところでお茶は(お酒のときのように)一杯ではなく、一服といいますね。薬を飲むときも一服といいますが、昔「お茶は薬」と考えられていたことの名残とか。それなりのお年の方なら粉薬を薬包紙でいただいた記憶もあるのではないでしょうか?

What about tea?  A bowl of tea is not “ippai” (as you might say for sake) – but “ippuku.”  The same counter is used for medicine.  Tea was once considered medicine a long time ago, and it may be a holdover practice from those days.  If you are of certain age, you may remember receiving medicines in a power form wrapped in wax paper.

あれ、タバコも一服といいますよ、と思い見てみたら案の定江戸時代にはタバコをベースにした薬があったそうです。

Wait….  Don’t we say “ippuku” for tobacco as well?  Sure enough, there were medicines made using tobacco leaves in the Edo period.

Chanoyu, Japanese Tea Ceremony, Omotesenke, San Francisco