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別れの句と菅丞相・Farewell Poem and Michizane

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https://i2.wp.com/images.metmuseum.org/CRDImages/as/original/DP244667_CRD.jpg

道真の怨霊・Michizane’s Angry Spirit

from Illustrated Legends of the Kitano Shrine [Japan]

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© The Metropolitan Museum of Art
http://www.metmuseum.org/collection/the-collection-online/search/45428

 

1591年2月14日秀吉は利休を京都から堺に追放しました。このとき娘のお亀にあてた句が「利休めはとかく果報ものぞかし菅丞相になると思へば」だったそうです。菅丞相は無実の罪で左遷された菅原道真(すがわらのみちざね)です。(辞世の句ではありません。)

On February 14, 1591 Hideyoshi banished Rikyu from Kyoto to Sakai (Rikyu’s hometown).  On that occasion, Rikyu is believed to have sent a poem to his daughter: “Rikyu is a fortunate man, knowing he will become Kansho’ujo’u“. Kansho’ujo’u refers to Sugawara-no-Michizane, who suffered banishment for a crime he had not committed.  (This poem is not a so-called “death poem.”)

菅原道真(845-903)は、醍醐天皇の右大臣にまで昇格しましたが、左大臣の藤原時平の陰謀により大宰府へ左遷され現地で亡くなりました。

Sugawara-no-Michizane (845-903) rose to the rank of the Minister of the Right under Emperor Da’igo.  However, due to scheming of the Minister of the Left, Fujiwara-no-Tokihira, he was banished to Daza’ifu (in today’s Fukuoka on the island of Kyushu) where he subsequently died.

菅原道真の死後、京都には異変が相次ぎました。まず藤原時平が39歳の若さで病死します。そして醍醐天皇の皇子、次いでその息子が次々に病死。930年に皇居清涼殿に落雷し、朝廷要人の多くが死傷しました。それを目撃した醍醐天皇も体調を崩し、3ヶ月後にお隠れになります。

After the death of Sugawara-no-Michizane, Kyoto was plagued with numerous mysterious events.  First, Fujiwara-no-Tokihira died at the young age of 39.  And Emperor Da’igo’s son and grandson died of illness in close succession.  In 930 a lightening struck the Se’iryo’u-den Hall of the Imperial Palace, and many high-ranking officials of the court died or were injured.  Emperor Da’igo himself, who witnessed this event, fell ill and passed away three months later.

清涼殿落雷事件に由来し道真の怨霊は雷神と結びつけられたとのこと。火雷天神が祭られていた京都の北野に北野天満宮を建立して道真の祟りを鎮めようとしました。こうして、「天神様」として信仰されるようになりました。後に道真が生前優れた学者・詩人であったことから、天神は学問の神として信仰されるようになりました。

It is said that, because of the lightening incident at the Se’iryo’u-den Hall, people started associating Michizane’s angry spirit with the God of Lightening (Ra’ijin).  In the Kitano district of Kyoto, the Heavenly God of Fire and Lightening (Kara’i Tenjin) was being worshiped at the time.  A new shrine, Kitano Ten’mangu’u, was built there in an attempt to appease Michizane’s anger.  This is how Michizane became to be worshiped as “Tenjin” (Heavenly God).  Because Michizane was a renowned scholar and poet during his life, “Tenjin” became to be worshiped as a god of scholarship.

利休が句を読んだのは自害を命ぜられる2週間前。ご自分の境遇を道真に例えられたのはどの様なお気持ちだったのでしょうか。無実ながら中傷の犠牲となった道真と共感されたのでしょうか。それとも死を予感して死後名誉回復されることを望んだのでしょうか。

Rikyu read that poem two weeks before he was ordered to commit suicide.  What was in his mind that prompted him to compare his situation to that of Michizane’s?  Did he feel some kinship with Michizane who fell victim to slander to no fault of his own?  Or did he foretell his pending death and hope that his honor would be restored after his death?

Unidentified artist. Illustrated Legends of the Kitano Shrine [Japan]
(25.224) In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History . New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/25.224. (December 2013)

【道真について】
http://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/菅原道真

【About Michizane】
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sugawara_no_Michizane

The Revenge of Michizane’s Angre Spirit
http://www.metmuseum.org/metmedia/interactives/adults-teachers/the-revenge-of-michizanes-angry-spirit

 

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