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表千家四方社中の茶の湯ブログ Japanese Tea Ceremony Blog for Shikata Shachu – Omotesenke

松喰鶴文・ Matsuku’izuru-mon

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松喰鶴文干菓子盆
Matsuku’izuru-mon higashibon

「松喰鶴文」は若松の小枝をくわえる飛鶴の文様です。

Matsuku’izuru-mon” is a motif of a flying crane with a young pine branch in its beaks.

古代オリエントには鳩などの鳥がオリーブや花枝をくわえる「花喰鳥」(はなくいどり)文綬帯(じゅたい)やリボン、真珠などをくわえる「含綬鳥」(がんじゅちょう)文がみられ、生命復活の印でした。これらを総称して「咋鳥(さくちょう)」文といいます。やがて中国を通じて日本にも到来しますが、鳥は鸚鵡(おうむ)、鳳凰、鴛鴦、鵞鳥(がちょう)、尾長などでした。

In the ancient Orient, motifs of a bird (like a dove) with an olive or flower branch (hanakuidori-mon) or with a diadem, ribbon or pearl (ganjucho’u-mon) were symbols of resurrection of life.  These are collectively called sakucho’u-mon.  They eventually arrive in Japan through China, but the bird was typically a parrot, phoenix, Mandarin duck, duck, or magpie.

https://i2.wp.com/www.jesuswalk.com/christian-symbols/images/dove-olive-branch.jpg

花喰鳥文 (Hanakuidori-mon)

含綬鳥文 (Ganjucho’u-mon)

平安時代後期、文化の和風化とともに人々の美意識に添って鳥はもっとなじみのある鶴となり、花枝も若松に変わって和様化し定着しました。

In the late Heian Period, the overall culture started to become more originally Japanese, and the motif transformed. It came to depict a crane (that the Japanese were more familiar with than other birds mentioned earlier) and young pine branches (rather than flowers) to suit the Japanese esthetics.

松をくわえて飛ぶ鶴の伝統は、正倉院宝物の八角鏡漆背金銀平脱の文様にさかのぼります。この「松喰鶴」の文様が公家調度品の文様として盛行しました。

The history of a flying crane with a pine branch goes back to the motif seen on the black-lacquered octagonal mirror called “hakkakukyo’u kingin heidatsu” – a treasure housed in the So’usho’u-in.  “Matsuku’izuru-mon” was widely used as a motif of household items for the nobility.

この松喰鶴文は現在でも吉祥の印として愛好されています。

Today “matsuku’izuru-mon” is still loved as a symbol of good luck.

【参考・References】

http://www.so-bien.com/kimono/monyou/matukuidurumon.html

http://www.kanazawa-bidai.ac.jp/www/contents/gallery/zuroku/11book/aesthetics/07.html

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