茶の湯 in サンフランシスコ ・ Japanese Tea Ceremony を San Franciscoで

表千家四方社中の茶の湯ブログ Japanese Tea Ceremony Blog for Shikata Shachu – Omotesenke

村田珠光・Juko’u Murata

Leave a comment

村田珠光・Juko’u Murata

村田珠光(むらた じゅこう)(1422/1423-1502)は室町時代中期の茶人で、「わび茶」の創始者とされている人物。僧侶であった為、本来ならば苗字は記されませんが、慣習的に「村田珠光」という呼び方が広まっています。

Juko’u Murata (1422/1423-1502) was a tea man of the mid-Muromachi Period, and is considered as the one who started the wabi tea movement.

奈良の浄土宗寺院称名寺に入ったものの出家を嫌って上京し、茶の湯を学びました。30歳の頃禅僧となり、臨済宗大徳寺派の一休宗純に参禅。といってもこれは諸宗兼学の修行で、珠光が臨済宗へと宗派を変えたとは言い切れないそうです。

He entered a Pure Land sect temple called Sho’umyo’u-ji in Nara to become a monk, but the life as a monk did not agree with him.  He went to Kyoto, and studied chanoyu.  Around his age 30, he became a Zen monk, and studied with Ikkyu’u So’ujun of the Da’itoku-ji branch of the Rinzai sect.  It appears that Juko’u was making a “rotation” of different sects to study them.  Therefore, it did not necessarily mean that Juko’u “converted” from the Pure Land sect to the Rinzai sect.

能阿弥との関係も深く、弟子となり茶・目利きを学びました。銀閣寺を建立で知られる8代将軍足利義政(1436-1490)は珠光に就いて茶の湯を学び、六条堀川に庵を贈り「珠光庵」と呼びました。

He had a good relationship with No’uami (能阿弥), and became his disciple to study tea and appreciation of artworks.  The 8th Sho’ugun, Yoshimasa Ashikaga (1436-1490), known for the construction of Ginkaku-ji, studied tea from Juko’u.  He gave Juko’u a hut in the Rokujo’u Horikawa area of Kyoto, and named it “Juko’u-an” (珠光庵).

能や連歌の精神的な深みと茶禅一味の精神を追求し「わび茶」の精神を生み出しました。将軍家や有力大名たちが天目や青磁茶碗など唐物を賞玩する華美な「書院茶」が当時隆盛していた中、その流れを拒絶し真の茶は質実にして敬と礼を重んずべき、としたのが珠光です。

Juko’u pursued the spiritual depth of Noh (a form of Japanese musical drama) and Renga (a form of Japanese poetry) and the spirit of “sazen ichimi” (“Tea and Zen, having shared the same root, are fundamentally one and the same”), and gave birth to the spirit of wabi tea.  Shoguns and powerful feudal lords were taken by the opulent “sho’incha” (library tea), and cherished Chinese imports, such as tenmoku and celadon bowls.  Juko’u rejected that trend, and believed that the essence of the true tea must be respect and courtesy.

能楽師・金春禅鳳の聞書きを記した「禅鳳雑談」には「珠光の物語とて月も雲間のなきは嫌にて候これ面白く候」という一節があります。この一節には完全性を拒否する珠光の姿勢が見受けられ、粗末な道具でも用いて良しとする「わび茶」の傾向を象徴しています。しかし「わび茶」は珠光により完成されたものとは言えず、富裕層における賛同者を得たことによりその精神が後へと引き継がれていきました。

Noh musician, Zenpo’u Konparu, wrote down a hearsay in a collection of his essays (“Zenpo’u Zatsudan“): “Since it is a story of Juko’u, the moon without a cloud is no good.  How interesting.”  It gives us a glimpse into Juko’u’s leaning to reject perfection.  Even humble utensils are accepted – that’s wabi tea, as embodied in that passage.  Be that as it may, wabi tea was not quite completed by Juko’u.  It was adopted by the well-to-do, and the spirit of wabi tea was carried on.

Syomyo-ji 201410.jpg称名寺・Sho’umyo’u-ji
Syomyo-ji 201410” by Degueulasse. Licensed under CC 表示 3.0 via ウィキメディア・コモンズ.

【参考・References】

http://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/村田珠光

http://www.eonet.ne.jp/~syomyoji/index.html

 

Advertisements

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s