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膳所焼・Zeze Ware

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淡海ぜぜ陽炎園作 膳所焼肩衝茶入
O’umi Zeze Kagero’u-en (maker), Zeze ware katatsuki cha’ire

膳所焼(ぜぜやき)は、滋賀県大津市膳所にて焼かれる陶器で、「きれいさび」で知られる小堀遠州の好みとされた遠州七窯の一つです。

Zeze ware is a type of pottery produced in Zeze, the city of O’utsu, Shiga prefecture. It is one of seven kilns that are favored by Enshu’u Kobori who is known for his “austere but pretty” taste.

膳所藩領国内で安土桃山時代から江戸時代初期に焼かれた大江焼などや、膳所焼復興を目指した梅林焼などの総称として用いられることもありますが、膳所藩主菅沼定芳が1629年に御用窯として始めたものがその始まりと言われています。定芳は本阿弥光悦・小堀遠州・松花堂昭乗との交友に影響を受け茶器を焼かせました。

The term “Zeze ware” sometimes also refer to O’o’e ware, which was produced in the Province of Zeze from the Azuchi Momoyama Period to the early Edo Period, or Bairin ware that attempted a resurrection of the then-defunct Zeze ware.  In general, it is believed that the Lord of the Zeze Province, Sadayoshi Suganuma, started Zeze ware at the province’s official kiln in 1629.  Sadayoshi socialized with Hon’ami Ko’uetsu, Enshu’u Kobori and Sho’ukado’u Sho’ujo’u, who influenced him to have tea utensils produced at his kiln.

菅沼定芳移封後、1634年新たに石川忠総が膳所藩主となりました。忠総の実父大久保忠隣は小堀遠州の師であった古田織部門下の大名茶人であり、また忠総自身も小堀遠州と親交が深かったそうです。

After Sadayoshi Suganuma was reassigned to a different province, Tadafusa Ishikawa became the Lord of the Zeze Province in 1634.  Tadafusa’s biological father, Tadachika O’okubo, was a feudal lord tea and practiced tea under Oribe Furuta, who was the teacher to Enshu’u Kobori.  Thanks to that connection, Tadafusa was also close to Enshu’u Kobori.

忠総が大江の地 に窯を築いて茶陶のみを焼かせた為、遠州七窯の一つとしての膳所焼きはこの大江窯のことだとする説もあります。大江窯の中興名物「大江」はこの大江窯で作られました。

Tadafusa established a new kiln in O’o’e to have only tea utensils produced.  For that reason, there is a theory that Zeze ware favored by Enshu’u Kobori as one of the seven kilns should really refer to this O’o’e kiln.  Cha’ire named “O’o’e,” which is chu’uko’u me’ibutsu, was produced at this O’o’e kiln.

中興名物「大江」(イメージ画)・本歌は根津美術館蔵
Chu’uko’u me’ibutsuO’o’e(artistic rendition).  The original is at Nezu Institute of Fine Arts.

1651年に忠総が死去し、1651年後継の石川憲之が伊勢亀山藩に移封すると、膳所焼は徐々に衰退していきました。

In 1651 Tadafusa passed away, and his successor, Noriyuki Ishikawa, was reassigned to the Ise Kameyama Province.  Thus losing provincial patronage, Zeze ware gradually declined.

その後江戸時代末期に膳所の地で、御用窯ではなく民間の窯、梅林焼(ばいりんやき)がありました。古膳所(こぜぜ)の特色である黒褐色の鉄釉と はまた違った三彩風の緑や黄色など鮮やかな発色の釉調が特色です。

In the late Edo Period, a privately operated kiln without provincial support operated in Zeze as Bairin ware.  In contrast to the “original” Zeze ware’s iron glaze in black/brown, Bairin was known for its bright colors, such as green and yellow, evoking similarities to the Chinese tricolor glaze.

膳所焼の廃絶を惜しんだ膳所の岩崎健三が1919年、友人の日本画家山元春挙と組んで別邸に登り窯を築き、その工房を陽炎園と しました。京都の陶工二代伊東陶山が技術的な指導を行い膳所焼の復興に生涯尽力し、健三の後、息子の岩崎新定に継承され現在に至っています。

Kenzo’u Iwasaki felt it was a shame that Zeze ware was no longer produced.  In collaboration with his friend and Japanese painter, Shunkyo Yamamoto, he built a climbing kiln at his villa and named the workshop “Kagero’u-en.”  A pottery artist from Kyoto, To’uzan Ito’u (2nd), provided technical instructions and dedicated his life to the revival of Zeze ware.  Kenso’u’s son, Shinjo’u Iwasaki, has taken over and continues to this day.

【参考・References】

http://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/膳所焼

膳所焼美術館 http://zezeyaki.jp/

 梅林焼交趾釉耳付香炉 梅林印

梅林焼交趾釉耳付香炉(ばいりんやきこうちゆうみみつきこうろ)
Bairin ware incense burner
Copyright (C) OTSU CITY MUSEUM OF HISTORY

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